Pisa Architecture

Pisa Architecture
Pisa is a small town with a population of less than 100,000 located in the north of Italy. Pisa is known primarily for its leaning tower; however, there are some other tourist attractions in Pisa worthy of a look round. Pisa has a long history and served as a strategic naval base during Roman times.

Pisa rose to occupy the apex in military and economic fronts during the 12th century when it was regarded as a major maritime force and trading city as a result of which the major part of its architecture could be dated back to the 12th century. We have mentioned a few of the tourist spots in Pisa below.

It is the Leaning Tower that is most famous not only in Pisa but the whole of Italy. It has acquired fame because of its deformity. Nevertheless it attracts hundreds from across the world who relish in taking pictures of the Leaning Tower.

Access inside the leaning tower of Pisa is constricted due to safety consideration though it is possible to gain entrance if you arrive early enough in the day before the daily quota of people allowed inside the tower has been hit. Admission to the leaning tower of Pisa costs 15 and it's best to reserve your place in advance.

The baptistery in Pisa is where the most of residents in medieval Pisa would have been baptised into the Christian faith. The initial structure of the baptistery in Pisa dates back to the 12th century though it was not fully finished until two hundred years later.

As a consequence this piece of architecture in Pisa is very beautiful as it embraces both Romanesque and Gothic influences. Once inside the baptistery you can find the pool-like shape carved out in the middle of the building which would have been filled with water and into which people would have been submerged as part of the baptism process.

The Cathedral in Pisa is an excellent example of Romanesque architecture that is so typical of the Tuscany region of Italy.

The building dates back to the 11th century and the grandiose interior is held up by 68 columns. Aesthetic highlights of a visit to Pisa Cathedral consists of the green and white marble interiors. Entrance to this sightseeing site in Pisa costs 2.

For those wanting to do some sightseeing in Pisa at a more comfortable pace, there are boat tours available that travel down the River Arno from which most of Pisa's sights can be viewed. Tickets cost about 5.
See Beautiful Architecture - Panama And Old Panama City Architecture
See Beautiful Architecture - Panama And Old Panama City Architecture
Panama's geographic location gives it strategic significance. Throughout history, it's been an important place for each of the countries it has been controlled by. At just 80 miles long with thin regions perfect for bringing together two oceans, it wasn't long before a powerhouse nation took notice and took advantage. In the sixteenth century, Spain made the territory into a crossroads of international waters and a necessary mercantile base for its empire.

Spain conveyed its assets in ships to the port of Portobelo in the region of Colon. From there, donkeys and canoes transferred the inventory across the isthmus to Panama City for dispersal to all of its colonies in America.

All the money and goods in constant transit eventually attracted English pirates and mercenaries like Francis Drake, attacker of Portobelo in 1596, and Henry Morgan, arsonist of the first City of Panama in 1671. The city was later moved to the Casco Antiguo, in what's at this time the current capital. The new city became the focal point for the advancement of the nation.

Encouraged by the liberation of other Latin American countries, Panama stated its own independence from Spain in November of 1821. The decision came as no shock given that discussions with Spain had dwindled long earlier. Nevertheless, the road to independence was so peaceful for Panama that it was celebrated by Simon Bolivar, South America's liberation fighter.

Once it separated from Spain, Panama freely joined the Great Colombia, Bolivars aspiration for a great new Latin American nation. Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama were all part of up his new land.

At first, this historic union significantly aided Panama. It shaped a different image of Latin American leadership with the purpose of boundless regional growth. This moment in time also marked a high point around the globe as the United States was given authorization to erect the earliest intercontinental railroad.

However, the Panamanian desire to become a liberated and sovereign nation, backed by the United States, guided Panama to complete its independence from Colombia as of November 3, 1903.

The building and finishing of the Panama Canal by the Americans began in 1904. It was deemed the eighth wonder of the world by many. The French were the earliest to take on in this enormous undertaking. They failed due to harsh conditions, tropical illnesses and terrible management. The Americans took note of the unsuccessful attempt and agreed to go on with the engineering of the Canal and the improvement of the Canal Zone. This phase changed Panama for good, once more establishing the country as a bridge for the world and a base for a prosperous financial society.

Panama is today one of the most developed countries in Central America and enjoys one of the most constant, steady economies and swift tourism industries in the Americas. It has the benefit of a fresh, new and healthy democracy. It is thought to be a secure, diplomatic and thriving nation.

Currently, Panama oversees the canal, which is going through an expansion. This is a nation always evolving, featuring an international banking base, lucrative legal firms, insurance agencies, call centers, expensive malls, as well as delightful cultural diversity, enviable ecological treasures and active tourism.

Architecture For Palm Beach County - Landscaping Design Concept

Architecture For Palm Beach County - Landscaping Design Concept
As one of the most affluent areas in the state of Florida, landscaping design and architecture for Palm Beach County is a historic, southern style that reflects the regions past, yet blends it with the present. The themes of most of the historic districts in West Palm Beach are of a Mediterranean style and also the mission style is prevalent as well. These particular styles leave a lot of options as to themes that revolve around the architecture.

Rock garden
Rock gardens are a creative way to enhance the features of a property and illustrate appeal through their own aspects. Rocks can be used to create walkways, shadow flower beds, or to simply replace grass altogether. Ideally, this is an eco-friendly direction, saving an abundance of water that would normally be used to water the lawn. Red lava rock is a fabulous way to enhance the features of a Mediterranean style home and add color to any landscaping design and architecture for Palm Beach County. Consider flagstone and polished marble as possibilities when creating walkways or rock gardens.

Trees carry a large impact in the Landscaping Design and Architecture for Palm Beach County. They will usually be placed in a pattern or a means of providing shade to certain areas of the property. Though the functionality may be diverse, the importance of trees remains very high. Certain trees require very little maintenance in this region, such as palm trees. There are others, weeping willows that will require a greater amount of maintenance (trimming, upkeep). Other trees that can provide shade as well as a colorful appearance are sweet acacias, red maples, black mangroves, holly trees, sycamores and Florida basswoods.

There are so many beautiful plants and flowers that are indigenous to South Florida and can enhance any property, whether it is the front yard or the back yard. It may only be a specific area that needs color or appeal, such as a walkway or a porch in the front. Other areas may be a deck in the back, a pool area or even a grotto. There are so many native plants and flowers that are ideal for Landscaping Design and Architecture for Palm Beach County; it would take up too much space to list them all. Here are a few of them that can offer ideas as to presentation.
Leather Fern-this is a plant that takes up a lot of space and also makes a statement. It can be used in a collection or as a standalone plant. Being a native plant of the region, it has a medium salt tolerance. It does require large amounts of moisture. The leather fern is a perennial plant that grows from 4 to 8 feet in height.

Amaranth-A colorful addition to any landscaping is this plant. With its attractive, red foliage, the amaranth grows very quickly and reached a mature height of 1 to 2 feet.
Blue Flag Iris-This enticing, blue flower will perk up any walkway or garden. The blue flag iris is a perennial plant that can grow from 4 to 7 feet in height at full maturity. It does require a large amount of moisture and care, but the results are well worth the invested time.

What is Green Architecture? It is the concept of designing buildings with a view of reducing negative impact of construction on environment and the people. Green Architecture encompasses the entire gamut of factors associated with structural designs ranging from conservation and efficient use of natural resources, use of indigenous material, concepts of recycling to optimizing the finances. It is literally an approach to get "Much More with Much Less". Did you ever wonder why those mud-caked, thatched roofed old houses remained so cool during summers? The answer lies in the advantageous use of local produce and the environment by the indigenous people in building those houses. Modern Green Architecture aims at identifying such indigenous practices and incorporating them into contemporary architectural designs. Green Architecture makes favorable use of natural sunlight and wind flow patterns. Green Architectural designs use energy saving devices such as fluorescent lights and solar heaters to make them more energy efficient. Structural designs incorporate concepts such as on site energy generation of wind, biomass and water.

A holistic Green designed building looks at all aspects of living like a self-sustaining ecosystem. For example, wastewater can be recycled to water the garden and organic waste generated by the occupants can be converted into manure in compost pits, which can be used for the garden. Reduction in the use of synthetic materials is one of the initiatives of Green Architecture. Toxic fumes generated by aging synthetic paints are a health hazard. Some synthetic building insulation material contains formaldehyde, a known carcinogen, which has affected the health of countless citizens. Green Architecture reduces the use of such material so as to create healthier environment. Green initiatives require concerted national and international effort.

The Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) is a US initiative that sets standards for design and construction practices more in tune with nature having the least negative effect on the surrounding environment and the people. The LEED standard gives different weights to factors such as sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, material and resources and indoor environmental quality. Based on the weights, certification points are calculated which are graded as Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum. Platinum is the most environment friendly and healthy LEED certification. The US LEED standards are being used by Canada, India and Israel for some of their Green Architecture projects. Other countries too have adopted their own versions of Green Architecural practices. Some of the countries adopting own standards for Green Architecture are Australia, France, Germany, Japan , Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand and UK.

The serious environmental conditions facing the world requires a sustained effort by the building industry to make a difference. Such an effort can be initiated through Green Architecture as the standard approach for all construction.

Green Architecture - Will  Really Impact Construction

Green buildings are not only be designed for a present use,
For some people, it was all about some building that inspired them as a child. Perhaps they grew up in some gorgeous mansion. perhaps they went to one of the great museums of the world as a kid and were completely captivated by it. Whatever it was, a single building got them interested in the process of designing and building others.

For other people, architecture schools are part of a political mission. You wouldn't believe how many visionaries there are at an average architectural school. At the one I go to, they probably make up half the class. Some of them want to design buildings with the idea of providing beautiful and affordable housing to the poor, others to change the way we see space as a society.

For me, going to architecture school was part of a much more down to earth experience. As a matter of fact, you could say that I always had an interest in buildings. I grew up on a farm, in one of the last communities in this country that still practices barn raising. For me, architecture school was not the realization of a lifelong abstract dream, but rather a way to build on my early, hands on experiences with communal buildings.

I feel like this gives me a much clearer vision than many people in architecture schools nowadays. Your typical architecture school student has his or her head in the clouds. In some ways, this is a good thing. It is good to have a vision to unify your buildings. There are many things that buildings have to be. They have to be functional, structurally sound, and comfortable to occupy. They don't necessarily have to be beautiful. When they are beautiful, however, it is like a wonderful luxury for the city around. Although not everyone understands an architect's vision, they can tell whether or not he has one.

On the other hand, if you enroll in a school of architecture without any hands-on experience, you can lose track of the purpose behind what you are doing. Architecture is, after all, about providing spaces for people to live and work. Architecture school can teach you many things, but unless you go in with this understanding, you will never build with both elegance and practicality.

German airport - Great Architecture Design

Berlin, airport

BBI-Info Tower appeared at the main airport of Berlin, intends to become a significant element of an infrastructure.

Spiral Tower in Berlin Airport

The tower will function as an observation post with which will supervise process of building of a new complex of the airport.

Tower in Berlin airport

Helicoid structure

Korean Architecture - Mini City Concept
Blending big and small, modern forms and cultural norms, this design project is part multifamily housing complex and part meta-home - a series of unique living spaces packed inside of a larger structure made to look like a conventional A-frame house on the outside (albeit made of creative and unconventional materials), and a cutting-edge converted industrial loft space within.
HyoMan Kim of IROJE KHM Architects has created something almost like a self-contained mini-city, complete with outdoor passages, horizontal gardens and vertical circulation spaces. These serve as places of interaction for residents who each individually occupy a part inside of the whole. Alternating layers of transparent and opaque material allow selective views and opportunities to look out while still inside, balanced with maintaining security and privacy within each unit.
The plans and sections show a surprisingly limited amount of space, the complexity of which is only fully comprehensible in the supporting photos. Inside and out, there is a sense of diversity within unity - careful attention to personal experience is visible in each detail and despite the fact that the same (relatively cheap metal and glass) building materials are used throughout. If you lived here, you would feel your unit was personalized, unique and elegant - not just a knock-off of the rest.
All of these strategies successfully lowered overall construction costs and made maximum use of each available square foot, but without compromising the integrity of each home-within-a-house built into this strange super-sized structure. The result is a series of homes that both adhere to a culture and traditional of Korean home building but also avoid seeming dated or constrained on a limited urban plot.

Korean Architecture - Mini City Concept
Korean Architecture - Mini City Concept
Korean Architecture - Mini City Concept

House is an architectural beauty | World Architecture

This house is an architectural beauty with its graphic design carved, and the edges of the house at the edge of Madrid, offering a look and feel of weightlessness at the building. The dark vertical stone failure main entrance is in contrast with the shiny facade. Large windows allow enough light in the house. The first floor has a bathroom, kitchen and service. Rooms and recreation rooms are downstairs. This 1000 m² The house is in perfect harmony with the surrounding nature and its elements. Designed to highlight the approach of A-cero architecture.

House is an architectural beauty | World Architecture

House is an architectural beauty | World Architecture

House is an architectural beauty | World Architecture

House is an architectural beauty | World Architecture

House is an architectural beauty | World Architecture

House is an architectural beauty | World Architecture

The main reason for scares adoption of baroque architecture for church design in England was plain lack of opportunity. The country was already very rich in medieval churches. The uncomfortable political and religious climate of that period depressed any building and reconstruction, though sometimes it was extremely necessary. After the Fire of London such opportunity finally arrived. Of the 86 destroyed or badly damaged churches then, it was decided to reconstruct 51. And, luckily, Christopher Wren being an Italian baroque architect as well was eager to take on this job in England.

Wren had the qualities right appropriate for those circumstances. In particular, his powers of invention and his resourcefulness were almost limitless. They allowed him to make merits of the severe necessities presented by limited finances and uncomfortable sites. In the churches of the City Wren manufactured a wonderful diversity of plan forms, the least trace of that time was free from. And his case established Classicism like a standard for church architecture in England. Wren's style included lots of unusual elements, which presented a combination of Italian, English, Dutch, and French trends.

Due to too a good deal of occupied space, St. Mary Virgin Church was retreated inward and then at very last Baroque period attained a smallest amount of projection.

Architecture In England | World Architecture
Architecture In England | World Architecture
Architecture In England | World Architecture
Architecture In England | World Architecture
Millions of visitors voyage to and through Italy every year in the search of it's ancient culture. The great food, art, and architecture.

There is more art and architecture to see in Italy than a person could possibly see in an entire lifetime. The three cities of Rome, Florence, and Venice alone offer an inexhaustible choice of art excursions.

Here are a few things you simply must see if you're on your own voyage seeking Italian art, either ancient or modern.

The Coliseum
The Coliseum is an artistic wonder that was originally used as an entertainment venue and is still an amazing site to see. Curiously, although it could consider a source of embarrassment of the past, it has come to be known as an icon from the ancient Roman period.

Vatican City
Vatican City is actually a tiny country and is perhaps one of the most remarkable aspects of Rome. As any Catholic will tell you Vatican City is the heart of Catholicism, both spiritually and politically. St. Peter himself was crucified on this spot, and St. Peter's basilica was built directly above the ancient hill. Even today Basilica and St. Peter's square are studies in architecture. Both often the subject of many art history classes. Visitors who go to the Vatican Museums and the Sistine Chapel are treated to see some of the true masterpieces of Roman art.

Piazza San Marco
Piazza San Marco is still studied today by urban architects and planners as a one of the most beautiful public places on earth. The square is surrounded by coffee houses, quaint little shops, and of coarse Campanile and St. Peter's Basilica. Tourists and locals mingle or sit and sip in its coffee houses, or meet to talk, and climb the Campanile to see the amazing view of Venice.

The Peggy Guggenheim Collection
In a city world renown for its ancient art and architecture, the Guggenheim Collection houses one of the greatest collections of modern art anywhere in the world. It's a collection that includes works by Pollack, Picasso, Klee, Rothko, Chagall, Mondrian, and more. There is also a splendid sculpture garden housing many other works of art.

In reality one could certainly wander Italy for many years and never experience all of it's great art and architecture. The I've listed and briefly discussed are a mere thumbnail sketches of what's available to an art lover touring in Italy.

Architecture and Italian Art | World Architecture
Architecture and Italian Art | World Architecture

Indian Architecture | World Architecture

Indian Architecture | World Architecture
Indian Architecture | World Architecture

History has a lot of proof about our original art and architecture. The olden era highly patronized art forms. Architecture was the chief skill of many artists. The rulers also had a penchant for palatial residence and multiple dwellings which gave a lot of opportunity for artists to explore their contemporary works. With each era the architecture and style changed as per the rulers. The Moguls brought in a lot of change and the Taj Mahal is an example of their idea of aesthetic architecture in its finest forms.

The temples of Khajuraho are the original format of stone sculpture that goes about telling the story as per Hindu mythology. Temple architecture is also related to geography. The Nagara style is the replication of certain structures found in the temples of Madhya Pradesh which makes a great impression in its stylized creation. The alluring colors in green, red, orange and blue are very typical of the gopura temple architecture of Tamil Nadu. This is accentuated with lots of images of Gods and Goddesses.

Wooden idols are also a feature of sculpture work in the temples of South India. Many temples in Kerala have the cave temples of Shiva and Shakti which is beautified with the artistic lamps in the natural style of lighting. The stone carvings are highly authentic and it is amazing to see the temples retain its luster for so many years. The Hoysala art and the innovations brought in by artists during the Chola dynasty are distinct and remarkable.

With many improvements in the architectural elements and show casing, a lot of change is now felt in the Indian architecture. Though there are different schools of thought in the architecture, one can see a lot of contemporary style juxtaposed with modern concepts. Art schools also include in-depth exploration of the original styles in Indian architecture which is well adopted my upcoming architects.

Urban buildings, clubs are also the styles in modern architecture are undertaken by established architects who conform to the requirements of city dwelling. Preserving monuments and other architectural pieces like forts and dams is carried on a large scale by the Government to retain our rich heritage.

Architectural Phases -  7 Essential Phases That Services Include

To get better design for your interior and exterior, builders and contractors from worldwide are using various architectural services. One can't imagine his future building without using architectural services. Using 3D models you can imagine your future interior and exterior designs on computer. Find below essential phase of architectural services with detail.

Architectural 3D Modeling:

3D Modeling is used to generate 3D models for various purposes. One can easily get better ideas about future interior and exterior looks. It also includes 3D product modeling and 3D furniture modeling. This technique becomes backbone for architectural firms and interior design firms.

3D Architectural Rendering:

It allows you to view moving objects on your computer or TV and facilitate user to make changes as per requirements. Architects can create 360 degree panoramas views using this technique. It allow users to apply own thoughts on moving objects. It is a well famous technique that used widely in architectural industry.

Architectural Animation:

It can be referred as a small architectural video created using 3D technology. Professional architects are creating small videos for pre visualization. Animation includes 3D walkthrough and 3D Flythrough services. it consist thousands of moving images applied in a single video.

Architectural Design:

It used to create designs for various purposes like custom house plans, residential designs, modern interior design, furniture design and landscape design. Landscaping must be done with more accuracy and that can be achieved by architectural design. Various technological tools make this process easy and accurate.

Architectural Drafting:

It converts basic sketches in to proper design formats. It Includes floor plans, wall sections, elevations, building sections, door-window details, foundation plans, roof sections, lighting drawings, furniture layouts and site layout designs. Professional firms are using various software like ArchiCAD, ADT 2007, Auto Sketch and Revit building 8.0

Architectural Drawings:

It plays significant role in architectural industry. It used for better visualization and presentation. It is used for various types of buildings like residential, commercial, institutional and industrial.

Revit Architectural Services:

When priority of precision and efficiency are utmost then professional architectural firms are using Revit services. Revit tends for revise instantly and that include drafting, designing, rendering and modeling.

Urban Mediaspace | World ArchitectureUrban Mediaspace | World Architecture

"The cantilevering roof plate is a dominant component of the architectural expression; during the day and especially in the evening, when the transparent fa├žade allows the building to glow from the inside."

Newton Drury stated, "There are certain values in our landscape that ought to be sustained against destruction or impairment; though their worth cannot be expressed in money terms.

Traditional architectural design virtually disappeared during the rise of modern architecture. Americans are showing they want more than the sleek disigns of modern architecture. The past decade has brought a rebirth of interest in early American architectural accents.

Home and business owners are looking to the past to determine what works and what is appealing.

Traditional architecture focuses on architecture and design, holding to the belief that by integrating architecture and design all projects benefit. There is an art to proper building and the appropriate use of architectural accents for each building type, beauty being the ultimate goal.

The choice of the best materials and design will provide a long term investment. By working with a finely tuned eye, a design begins with the building's role in the environment. There is an art to appropriate use of architectural accents for each building type.

American architecture began during the 17th century, when our forefathers came to North America. The settlers brought with them varies building techniques from their homeland. Being creative and adapting to the climate, skills and available building materials, they set out building quality construction which varied among the different settlements.

In New Orleans, the French government sent skill architects to produce the quality of buildings as in France. This is the only settlement at the time that had architects to produce the buildings.

The mansions in the South depicted Roman and Greek design. Building adobe structures, the Spanish settlers in the Southwest were influenced by the Native Americans. At the same time, New England went about building gabled buildings with Gothic inspiration.

In the 18th century the government and office buildings in Williamsburg, VA, were built with class and formal English architecture. President's George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were very interested in architecture and were very influential in the planning and building of Washington, DC.

Barns have been a large part of traditional American architecture, as every farm had a barn. Sears and Roebuck Co, as well as others sold tens of thousands of homes and barns all over the country. They were delivered by railroad and were assembled at the building site.

By the second half of the 19th century the trend of modern design was to use steel, cast iron and concrete to construct buildings. It was during this time the sky scrapers began being built. It was during this time the sky scrapers began being built. Glass and steel towers sprung up throughout the USA. The early American designs were replaced by the strong architectural statement of glass and steel.

By the 1960's, houses changed to have attached garages, front porches went out of style. It was during this time that family rooms were the gathering place, replacing the formal living room.

The United States was slow to recognize the value of our older historic buildings till the Mount Vernon restoration stirred awareness of American historic architecture. Federal grants for historic preservation became available and along with that a rebirth of craftsmanship.

People increasingly long to live with traditional design for the lasting value not only for the present but in the future. Quality construction does not become tired or dated, rather the elegant design will age gracefully. Good buildings will increase in value over time instead of decrease.

American character and integrity embodies traditional early American architecture. The elegant lines speak volumes about the values and priorities of our forefathers. The choice of the best materials and design will prove a long term investment, increasing in value throughout the years.

American Architecture - The Value of Early
American Architecture - The Value of Early
Architectural styles denote the classification of architecture in terms of form, techniques and materials in an integration of architecture designs from over lapping periods of time. There have evolved various and diverse types of architectural styles over the years; listed blow are some of the more popular ones.

Art Deco

The Art Deco style was an echo of the Machine Age and became popular in the 1920s. It was stylized by geometric decorative elements and a vertically oriented design. Towers and other projections above the roofline enhance the vertical emphasis of this style while flat roofs, metal window casements, and smooth stucco walls with rectangular cut-outs are symbolic of the Art Deco exterior. Facades are marked with zigzags and other stylized floral, geometric and sunrise motifs. A distinctly urban style, Art Deco in American architecture was used widely and popularly for commercial buildings during this period.


More than simply the design elements, Colonial architecture refers to the time period in American architecture, between the early 1600s, when the first colonists began to build settlements and 1776, the year the colonies declared their independence from England. Economical, refined and basic, the colonial designs reflect the buildings practices of America's early settlers. Although Colonial architecture is often thought of as stately and symmetrical with an orderly arrangement of windows, it actually comes in several sizes, shapes and styles reflecting the diverse cultural traditions of the English, Dutch, Spanish and French.


Contemporary-style homes became hugely popular between 1950 and 1970. There were two types of contemporary American architecture - the flat-roof type and the gabled roof type. These were characterized by odd-sized and often tall windows, lack of ornamentation, and unique mixtures of wall materials like stone, brick, and wood. Both types of designs were one-story tall and designed to incorporate the surrounding architectural landscape into their overall look.


Fanciful and royal, the Georgian architecture was styled in honor of the first three monarchs of England, all of whom were named George. Formal and majestic Georgian homes are known for their refined and symmetrical design with paired chimneys and a decorative crown over the front door. Another unique feature is the orderly row of five windows across the second story. With sport side-gabled roofs, Georgian houses are two to three stories high, and constructed in brick. Besides symmetry, this kind of architecture is symbolized by rich classical detail such as large Greek or Roman style columns, elaborate entryways with beautifully arched windows resting atop them and elegant ornamentation.

Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival became popular in the mid 1800s. This style was largely influenced by English romanticism and intricate wooden millwork. It was characterized by Gothic windows with distinctive pointed arches and featured exposed framing timbers and steep vaulted roofs with cross-gables. They also included extravagant features such as towers and verandas.


European architects initiated the modern style of architecture in the 20th century. Using materials such as concrete, glass and steel, it was devoid of ornamentation or decoration. The architectural landscape in the international style introduced the idea of exposed functional building elements such as elevator shafts, ground-to-ceiling plate glass windows, and smooth facades.

Prarie House

The first Prairie-style house was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago in 1893. This American architectural style peaked between the years 1900s and 1920s and focused on modest homes that blended the natural beauty of the Midwestern landscape. It consists of two main styles - boxy and symmetrical or low-slung and asymmetrical and the materials used are brick and clapboard. It has low pitched gable roofs with eaves extending well beyond the walls, creating an effect that allows it to blend with the scenery. Other details included pronounced overhangs, stone belts to accentuate the horizontal designs, rows of casement windows, one-story porches with massive square supports as well as stylized floral and circular geometric terra-cotta or masonry decorations around doors, windows, and cornices.

Shingle Victorian

This American architectural style was used widely in cottages along the trendy, wealthy North-eastern coastal towns of Long Island and Newport in the late 19th century. Wide porches, unadorned doors, windows, and cornices, steeply pitched roof lines are symbolic of this style. Continuous wood shingles cover the entire surface of the home, giving it a cohesive look. Some unique features in this style include dormers, recessed balconies, and side towers with bell or conical roofs structured under the shingles.


This architecture was initiated in the 1920s and 1930s, but continues to remain a popular architectural style in suburbs across the United States even today. It is characterised by half-timbering on bay windows and upper floors with facades that are pronounced by one or more steeply pitched cross gables. Patterned brick or stone walls, rounded doorways, multi-paned casement windows, and large stone chimneys are also some of the features of this architectural style.


Victorian architecture in America originated in the second half of the 19th century, when America was identifying new approaches to building and design. Victorian styles include Second Empire, Italianate, Stick, and Queen Anne among others. Advances in modern technology ensured the incorporation of ornamentation such as brackets, spindles, and patterned shingles into the Victorian designs.

Architectural Styles | World Architecture
Architectural Styles | World Architecture
Architectural Styles | World Architecture
Architectural drawing is a fabulous technique developed by engineers to understand about the architecture design. Architectural design can be described as drawings of architecture viewable on computer. Rising architects are using this technique to get perfect dimension of any architecture. In the past time, all the work regarding architectural development was done manually on paper. But professional architects and experts of civil engineering introduced various software like AutoCAD to reduce this kind of work. In the current time it is considered as a basic and most important step of architectural engineering.

Architectures are using this technique for various purposes. Architectural drawing can be used in various type of buildings construction like:

o High Rise Commercial Buildings
o High Rise Residential Buildings
o Fly over and small bridges construction
o Highly Equipped Hospitals
o Hotels and Restaurants
o Malls, auditorium and multiplex theaters

The latest way of it is to create 3D view of any architecture. By generating 3D view architects or client can view the model by 360 degree. This is the most important step so one should be careful about that. It is not an easy job as there are some complex procedures in it. Architectures are following some basic rules for architectural drawing. So People need best experts for drawing and drafting who are aware with drawing rules. Before hiring any expert for architectural drawing or drafting you must have to check his ability as described below:

o Experience of the person hired for architectural drawing
o Able to show you internal and external drawing of architecture
o Must have knowledge about detailed drawings and documentation
o Can access computer while generating architectural design

Architectural design is an imagination of art to generate the attractive design for your model. Architectural drawing process involves drawing, sketching and documentation. So due to this kind of importance architectural design has become heart of civil engineering.

Architectural Drawing - Find your own ability
Architectural Drawing - Find your own ability
Architectural Drawing - Find your own ability

Historically, little thought has been given to creating or maintaining strategic architectures for business enterprises. As the competitive landscape continues to put pressure on organizations to be more efficient, the process of implementing unified Enterprise Architecture will become an essential part of any business. This paper covers the definition of Enterprise Architecture, provides a description of how it should be utilized to tightly couple business processes and goals to information systems, and how to create an architecture that is able to be supported.

Enterprise Architecture:

Enterprise Architecture is a tool that aids businesses by allowing managers to see and think about smaller functions within the whole of the business. A common phrase used to describe an Enterprise Architecture is a set of "living documents" that are short, simple, and easy to understand. Enterprise Architecture is a relationship between processes and goals that allow businesses to organize, assess, and implement changes based on a set of "blueprints." These blueprints vary based on what is needed. For example, a company setting up an Enterprise Architecture could have three, four, or five different sets of blueprints for various reasons, such as one for product assessment, one for consumer reports, and so on. Not only is Enterprise Architecture a set of blueprints, it is the actual work behind those plans. Implementation is required for the architecture to be built and maintained, as all the plans and actions must be integrated so that proper managers can view needed material in its relationship to other factors.

After building upon the blueprints and integrating all the processes and goals, the proper questions may be asked. These questions are what bring about change that may improve and maintain a business.

An Architecture Cycle:

When establishing an Enterprise Architecture, all aspects need to be incorporated into one place. It is this assimilation that allows managers to begin questioning. Often, this process is a cycle with four phases. First, an architect receives input about new strategies, goals, and processes that may not be performing properly. Next, the architect must look at any further implications and connect those to the received input. Third, the architect makes alterations based on the input and wider implications. Lastly, the process starts all over again. Overall, this cycle gives the architect the opportunity to assess all areas of the business, including some that may have been overlooked, and make changes that will best suit the organization.

Organizing Business Processes and Informational Systems:

Once organized, an architect will assess the alignment of business processes to informational systems. Simply put, an architect translates the information that is transferring from process to applications and vice versa. The architect determines if the results are in-line with goals, and so on. Proper organization allows the architect to translate and even determine where translation is needed.

Creating an Enterprise Architecture:

Enterprise Architectures are not developed in a day, and in order to set up an Enterprise Architecture, an organization needs to establish a series of steps.

The specifics of the individual Enterprise Architecture will differ among businesses. However, listed below are six general steps for creating an Enterprise Architecture:

1. Assess Current State & Agree on Deficiency:

To create an Enterprise Architecture, it takes one or more persons to determine the need for such an architecture. The Enterprise Architect, usually the one who suggests the architecture and ultimately builds it, assesses the different variables that demonstrate a need for change.

2. Select a Framework, Platform and Methodology:

The selected framework should fit the individual needs of the business, the goals and desired results of the organization, as well as a course of action that suits both the architect and managers.

3. Select Tools:

Keeping track of the integration of the processes and documentations may require the utilization of various tools. Appropriate tools will store all the information in a repository that will allow managers to access the needed materials.

4. Organize, Organize,

Whichever type of organization an architect chooses, it is important to remember that this is the most time-consuming and important step. One suggestion for a type of organization is Business Functional Domains & Sub Domains over a unified architecture. Another method for organization is to build the models of the existing system as they are improved

5. Utilize the Architecture:

Although the architecture may not be complete, the business should begin to use it. It is designed to fit the organization; therefore, the architect should make sure that the managers start to utilize its benefits as soon as possible.

6. Maintain & Build Upon the Architecture:

Once the foundation for the architecture is done, the business should maintain and build upon the architecture, and in order to do so, a methodology should be selected. A methodology will allow managers and workers to function with the same goals in mind, improving results. In addition to maintaining results, the right methodology allows a business to expand the architecture's uses to fit the organization's needs.

Initiating and Supporting an Enterprise Architecture:

When initiating an Enterprise Architecture, one must survey the existing environment, talk to representative users, read existing documentation, and study current systems. It is critical to seek inherent problems the enterprise has in accomplishing the tasks it needs to perform in order to be successful. This is accomplished by boiling down the potentially large amounts data gathered and abstract the findings into the conceptual diagrams. One must aggregate important policies and standards into a cohesive and broadly applicable guidance document. Applying some well-known patterns and a few of the favorite concepts will evolve working documents into drafts and eventually into the proposed architecture. Educated and armed, one is able to lobby superiors, peers, and subordinates to aid in implementing the architecture.

To support an Enterprise Architecture, certain tools are relied upon that will aid in the integration and execution of the architecture. These tools should provide the opportunity to view all diagrams, documentations, and processes. Although analyzing and designing processes are still left to be done, assembling and tracking the various relationships will be managed by using a tool.

Decorating for kids | House Architecture

Decorating a kids room can truly be a fun project, as the more creativity and imagination you have, the better the result. Choose a boy’s decorating theme or girl’s theme, favorite colors, and add things that are important to your child. Pick the color of the room or the theme, and then make everything else ties together accordingly. Design will depend upon the gender and interests of the child. Paint it a fun color like pink, green, red or yellow. Bright colors are always good idea and interesting.

Homeowners and potential homeowners love to dream of their ideal home. Many will parade up and down streets searching for the perfect luxury home architecture. Others will flock to showcases and open houses looking for ideas on how to build their dream home. Whatever your reason, the ideas are unlimited. From European, to castles, luxury home architecture is a very lucrative business that is here to stay.

A floor plan of a typical luxury home architecture may include a long, winding staircase that leads to a balcony that overlooks the main floor. The rails of the stairs may be made out of black iron and are include hand molded roses for the internal design of the rails. The stairs may be made of white marble with a hint of caramel color to accent the structure. The top of the landing may be the entry point for a series of interlocking rooms that include a guest bedroom, master bedroom, master bath, guest bath, and a couple more bedrooms. The upstairs also may include a series of pillars that are designed to look at those they are standing guard at the entrance to the rooms.

Luxury home architecture can be done in any fashion as long as the owner of the house is willing to be open minded. Many people pay a fortune for someone to come in and design their entire house as it is being built from the ground up. The architecture along with the interior designer will come in and work together to determine the best material to use, colors and the fabrics that will go along with the point of view the architecture and the owner of the property want to portray. Even the lighting is included in the plans which can sometimes be the most expensive part of the whole design process because of the number of lighting used.

Luxury home architecture does not have to be that elaborate. It could be a basic floor plan that is spacious and is more traditional. It is the design along with the materials used in the construction process that makes it a luxury home. So you can still have that plain and simple home but designed in a way that turns simple into luxury. Searching the internet will give you lots of luxury home architecture ideas to choose from as well as templates that can be used by both the architecture and the homeowner as well. These templates can give you an idea of the costs based on the materials you choose to enter into the equation and will reveal a budget that you could use when shopping for your designer.

Luxury Home Architecture | House Architecture
Luxury Home Architecture | House Architecture
Luxury Home Architecture | House Architecture

World Architecture - Architectural Landscape Lighting

World Architecture - Architectural Landscape Lighting
World Architecture - Architectural Landscape Lighting
Architectural landscape lights should work to unite the manmade and the natural in a manner that is compliant with regulatory codes and affordable for your clients. While landscape lighting represents a focus on illuminating and magnifying points of interest in the natural scenery, architectural landscape lighting creates the sense that buildings and technology are in harmony with Nature and establishes a more unified presentation to anyone viewing the facility at night.

Developing an architectural landscape lighting system that will remain true to this intention without costing additional money down the line requires a great deal of planning and research. You will have to determine all the necessary photometric requirements of the system, locate specification grade equipment made in the United States by manufacturers who emphasize quality over quantity, and be willing to use pioneering technologies that many of your clients may not yet understand, but can quickly be educated in if you can just find the time and resources to show them all the benefits you can bring to their table.

For example, one of the most costly components in any architectural landscape lighting system has always been any type of incandescent luminaire, such as a quartz floodlight, that consumes too much electricity in comparison to the light it produces. Not only does this waste money, it violates recent dark sky laws in most places, and it also results in ongoing replacement costs as they fixtures inevitably burn out. Newer fixtures that rely upon electronically ballasted fluorescent lamps, improved HID sources, and now LED light bars deliver a better quality of lighting and comply fully with the recent crackdown on light pollution.

By investing now in specification grade architectural landscape lights, you can save your clients money on excessive energy bills and help them avoid a possible parts shortage that could hit those who wait until the last minute to replace mercury vapor and incandescent lamps. Instead, propose to them architectural landscape lights that feature fluorescent lamps and ballast controls with superb CRI, LED's that can save as much as 80% on power consumption, and HIDs featuring higher than ever LPW efficiency rating, you generate savings that translates into ROI and recession proofing the Spartan budgets of a very cautious and somewhat nervous customer base. You can do this too without sacrificing the visual component of the system as well. Our new generation of architectural landscape lights not only performs better than the previous generation of technology, but it actually features more attractive, diversified and decorative fixture housings in a variety of fixture housings and finishes heretofore unimagined.

RLLD Commercial Lighting's inventory includes everything from decorative fluorescent bollards, post mounted lights, LED Street lighting for industrial parkways and private thoroughfares, super energy saving low voltage landscape lights of every variety, and HID floodlights that can output more light with less energy than ever. All of our lighting fixtures, without exception, are made by world-class US manufacturers who produce them in domestic factories located within our borders. Because our sources are exclusively American, we ensure both quality and compliance and also pass on manufacturers' warranties unavailable to cheaper parts procured from overseas channels.

One additional benefit we deliver to both small and large companies alike is supportive, adjunct lighting design services with every purchase of architectural landscape light fixtures. We have invested a great deal of money in proprietary lighting design software that enables us to calculate the precise photometric requirements for optimal foot candle density and directional lighting control that you need to build a truly winning proposal. By nailing down the technical and regulatory details first, we can then help you focus on finding fixtures and accessories that add aesthetic value to your client's location. This in turn enables you to creating an architectural landscape lighting system that is customized to the exact parameters of your client's site and guaranteed to perform reliably with a minimum of maintenance for years to come.

Britany Bell, an architecture student in University of Victoria, New Zeland, has made her basic concepts of design. In this design concept she create seed concept may appear in her next design.

Basically, the idea is the concept of plants that grow in the city. Brittany Bell write in the text;

Each year, more and more types of plants that become extinct or endangered. The New Zealand government has proposed the idea to create the archives to seed the Pacific home to the original plant and preserve them for future generations.

Brittany describe that architecture of the future is unpredictable, and therefore there is a need to design buildings that can move and grow like plants in the changing environment and ecosystem. Basically she take the form of bone from the plant's 'cytoskeleton'. From this basic concept it can be further developed in response to building environment and grow with, such as adapting the rainfall, making forms of protection as a wing. These structures can even move to accommodate such protection.
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